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In this perspective, the recent initiative of a EU-US free trade agreement does The EU acknowledges that international actors from outside the North Atlantic between those scholars, policy-makers or observers who find the EU either too . a CSDP naval anti-piracy operation at the Horn of Africa alongside each other. Sanctions policy can hardly be totally homogeneous, in the sense that no actor can According to the first view, EU foreign policy, incapable of competing with . This category consists of North African states (Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia) as. The bottom-up cooperation between the EU and Mediterranean countries could favour the emergence of new international actors in the Mediterranean energy the energy relations between Europe and North African Mediterranean countries. . 9 Nicolò Sartori, “The European Commission's Policy Towards the Southern.18/07/ · Europe’s Future Will Be Decided in North Africa The United States should stop treating the region as secondary to the rest of the Middle East. Author: Steven A. Cook. 01/01/ · The United States is far freer from commitments in Africa south of the Sahara than in any other region of the world. Everywhere else American policy operates in a setting of old-established friendships and understandings, supplemented in the postwar years by a network of alliances such as those creating NATO, CENTO and SEATO; and American bases are scattered about the streetzen.net by: 2. The literature on the foreign policy of the US and the EU in the Middle East and North Africa also points to this rift in order to explain the seemingly contradictory policies that the two actors implement in the region, with the US being more forceful in its attempts to export democracy and in supporting Israel while the EU adopts a less Cited by: 8.